What is management? Are there certain functions that all managers perform regardless of whether they’re company presidents, managers of departments, or supervisors of department sections?
If we watch managers at work, we might conclude that their jobs differ so widely in content and scope that no generalizations about management are possible.
One reason for this is that many managers, even top managers, do work that is not management at all. A simple example is the sales manager who actually sells and perhaps has a set of customers of his own, in addition to managing the sales force. Then there’s the “working foreman” or leadman who works right along with the group he’s supervising. In these cases the managers are actually spending only part of their time on management itself.
A second reason why it may be difficult to identify the functions common to all managers is that the scope of their activities differs widely.
Yet, if we look closely at managers at work, we can see that fundamentally they are all performing — or should be performing — the same functions during the time they are actually managing rather than doing the work similar to that done by those under them.
These functions are planning, organizing, directing, controlling, staff¬ing, leading, representing and decision making. None of the manage¬ment functions can be performed without communication.
There were good managers, of course, long before anyone ever studied management.
The field of management has drawn on sociology, psychology, economics, and other disciplines, and it is in these areas that the manager can learn from study as well as from experience and by trial and error. He still needs plenty of intelligence, common sense, and business judgement — and even the inspired hunch may still take place. But the knowledge of what others have learned about the various aspects of management will help him use his native abilities more effectively.
Future managers will need more education than those of the past. A knowledge of the humanities will be needed for a balanced viewpoint. Scientific knowledge will be required to distinguish between good and bad expert advice, for the area of management is replete with disagreements between experts.
a) Find in the text the Russian equivalents for the following words and word combinations:
• to perform functions;
• managers of departments;
• top managers; sales managers;
• a set of customers; sales force;
• the scope of activities;
• the working foreman;
• by trial and error; t
• learn from study and experience;
• native abilities; humanities
b) Find in the text the English equivalents for these words and word combinations:
• выполнять функции;
• президент компании;
• сфера управления;
• здравый смысл;
• научные знания/охват;
• принятие решений
Exercise . Answer the questions.
1. Why is it so difficult to define the functions managers perform?
2. What functions do managers carry out apart from management?
3. What are purely management function?
4. What sciences is management connected with?
5. How can scientific knowledge help managers in their work?
Добавлено (20.12.2012, 22:35)
B: One hears over and over again that what a modern enterprise needs is a good manager. What do you think of the problem?
A: The importance of a good manager can’t be overestimated.
B: What do you think makes a good manager?
A: First of all high standards of professional knowledge and personal conduct.
B: What personal traits must a good manager have?
A: A good manager must be flexible, must have confidence in himself and others, and keep a sense of proportion. Besides, he must have leading ability.
В: I see, and what professional skills should managers have?
A: Managers must know how to set up goals and how to achieve them, how to divide work and how to coordinate the activities of individuals.
B: Management is often called the art of getting things done through people. What’s your point of view on the essence of management?
A: The essence of management is to create an environment where indi-viduals, working together, can perform effectively and efficiently. Nowadays, managers must be more skilled in handling people.
B: Yes, managers must understand that human resources are a very important part of any business.
Exercise . Describe any manager you know or an imaginary one using the following words and expressions:
to have competence/efficiency/an immense energy/a gift for organi-zation/courage/determination;
to be two/three years from retirement;
to work with a precision of a computer;
to occupy an important post;
to have one’s share of optimism/courage;
to do one’s job (in an office) without any fuss;
to be accustomed to exercise authority;
to be able to get along with others older than oneself;
to get more irritable; to bring out objections for frank discussions
Exercise . Translate the following conversation:
Three interviewees — Peter Dawson, John Ellis and Samantha Merton are giving their opinions on what they consider to be the three most important qualities for a good manager.
- In this part of the interview I’d like to ask each of you in turn what you consider to be the three most important qualities for a good manager. Perhaps we could hear your ideas first, Mr Dawson.
- Well, I think that at present the most important quality is the ability to deal with other people. I know that we are a manufac¬turing industry but I feel very strongly that we also have a great responsibility towards our personnel. Secondly, well, let me see... yes, in my opinion, the second most important quality must be the ability to talk to our personnel about their jobs, their futures, their problems, etc., to be able to relate to them, you know. And, thirdly, well... I suppose I’d put adaptability as the third most important quality. I think that fits in with the other two points I mentioned to give my idea of a good manager.
- Well, thank you for your opinions, Mr Dawson. Perhaps, we could hear your views now, Mr Ellis.
- Well, I consider the present situation requires a rather different approach to the whole question of management and, therefore, different qualities for managers. I believe that a good manager is one who can persuade people that his way is right. Isn’t that why he is a manager? Getting people to accept his decisions and to follow his leadership that, in my view, is the mark of a good manager. Secondly, I feel that he should be firm with his people. That’s how they’ll come to respect him. And thirdly, I’m of the opinion that he should be physically fit. In this day and age the pressures and strains are so great that only the fittest can survive, and those are the ones that should be the managers. Mentally competent, of course, but physically competent also.
- Well, thanks, Mr Ellis. Could we hear what you think, Mrs Merton?
- Yes, certainly. I think my views, probably, represent a mixture, or synthesis, of my colleagues’ opinions. The most important quality is, in my opinion, the ability to think flexibly, to find new answers and new solutions. Secondly, I feel that as managers we should be able to handle people, as I am sure that for the company good labour relations means a happy and secure future. But this doesn’t mean that we should be too lenient, nor too dogmatic. Now, the third quality should be, in my view, the ability to direct and control people effectively.
- Well, thank you all for your opinions.
Добавлено (20.12.2012, 22:35)
Exercise . Read the text and answer the questions below.
During a sleepless night last Monday, Mr Hawk suddenly realized that he was in love with Alice Elliott. He came to the conclusion that; he had been in love with her for months if not for years. Only h extreme shyness and reserve had kept the feeling deep in his subconscious and prevented it from coming to the surface. The whole thing became obvious when Mr Hawk read a chapter in a textbook on modern psychology. He had taken the book from the local library by mistake the previous day. He knew he had made a mistake the moment h had opened the book at home, but it was too late to go back to the library. Out of curiosity he read a chapter in the evening. Then he started to psychoanalyse himself and he saw clearly that his whole life had been a series of self-deceptions, half-truths or lies. It came to light that he had always wanted to murder Mr Baxter and burgle his safe, in run away with Alice Elliott and become a cowboy. In the course of this relentless process of self-revelation, he came to the conclusion that all his life he had been a fool. The thought had a sobering effect on him Had he been a fool or was the book wrong? Surely the book was wrong!
He returned it to the library the following morning and quickly forgot l he whole thing.
1) To what conclusion did Mr Hawk come during a sleepless night in May?
2) When did the whole thing become clear?
3) Why did he take the book from the library?
4) What was the result of Mr Hawk’s psychoanalysis?
5) What had a sobering effect on him?
6) What did he do in the end?
Exercise . Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. How long have you been learning English?
2. He says he has been subscribing to this paper for a long time.
3. He said he had been subscribing to this magazine for a long time.
4. I’m looking for my pass. I’ve been looking for it the whole day.
5. I was looking for my pass the whole day. I found it only in the evening.
6. He’s been teaching Chinese since he came here.
7. They emigrated to Australia in 1980 and have been living there ever since.
8. George has travelled a lot for the hi .1 few years.
9. When I first met him, he had been playing football for live years. Is it true?
10. By 2005 he will have been playing hockey twelve years.
11. Baseball has always been popular in the United States.
12 Thank you, you’ve been most cooperative.